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The following sections contain information about the FRAME Architecture. Please click on a section heading for the full text.

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The FRAME Architecture Version 4.1
The FRAME Architecture now contains the Cooperative Systems services and applications developed by the COOPERS, CVIS and SAFESPOT FP6 Integrated Projects. This extension now brings the total number of principal Functional Areas supported by the FRAME Architecture to nine, as shown below. A document containing a brief summary of the contents of each Functional Area can be found in…

What is the FRAME Architecture?
The FRAME Architecture (originally called the European ITS Framework Architecture) was developed as a result of recommendations from the High Level Group on transport telematics, which were supported by a resolution of the Council of Ministers. It was created and first published by the EC funded project KAREN in October 2000. The underlying aim of this initiative was to promote the deployment of (mainly road-based) ITS in Europe by producing a…

Planning Integrated ITS Deployments
The FRAME Architecture is intended to be used to help the planning and deployment of integrated ITS for a region over a period of time (see diagram below). An ITS Architecture is created for that region to show what is required. Often some of the required ITS applications and services exist already, and in this situation the ITS Architecture will show what is needed and how it should be integrated to the existing equipment…

Creating an ITS Architecture using FRAME
The methodology for creating an ITS Architecture from the FRAME Architecture is illustrated in the figure below. The use of particular technologies or supplier products is not included in the FRAME Architecture. This is important for two reasons. Firstly the ITS Architectures created using the methodology will not become obsolete through advances in technology, or product development, and secondly…

Relationship with the ITS Action Plan and ITS Directive
The ITS Action Plan makes specific reference to:
“Support for the wider deployment of an updated multimodal European ITS Framework architecture for intelligent transport systems and definition of an ITS framework architecture for urban transport mobility, including an integrated approach for travel planning, transport demand, traffic management, emergency management, road pricing, and the use of parking and public transport facilities”…

Relationship with other Cooperative Systems Activities
During FP6 a number of projects, in particular SAFESPOT, CVIS and COOPERS, and co-funded by the EC, developed a number of “proof of concept” Cooperative Systems. These have been analysed by the E-FRAME project, and a corresponding set of about 230 FRAME User Needs have been written, and for which the corresponding…

Why is FRAME a Framework Architecture?
A principal objective for the FRAME Architecture is to promote the deployment of ITS in Europe by producing a framework which would provide a systematic basis for planning ITS implementations, facilitate their integration when multiple systems were to be deployed, and help to ensure inter-operability, including across European borders…

The FRAME model
The FRAME model used for the Functional Viewpoint is based on hierarchical Data Flow Diagrams. At the highest level is the Context Diagram (see figure below) which shows all the functionality supported by the FRAME Architecture inside a box labelled “System” surrounded by a set of “Terminators”, which are outside the boundary of the system. Each Terminator represents…

The FRAME Architecture Viewpoints
Integrated ITS services are complex, and it is not possible to describe them completely in a single model or diagram. Instead we use a number of different models, each one concentrating on a different aspect of the integrated ITS services. As an example consider how people might describe a car. Some are interested in their colour and style, others are interested in the interior design…

Where are the FRAME Physical and Organisational Viewpoints?
An overarching condition on the creators of the FRAME Architecture from the European level is that nothing should be imposed on the Member States because of subsidiarity (“you will not tell me how to design my system!”). This has resulted in an approach in which a European ITS Framework Architecture has been developed, which does not impose choices on its users, but allows them to develop their own framework sub-sets from it, and then to…

ITS Architecture as part of Systems Engineering
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed over the life cycle of the project. Whenever complex integrated systems are being designed it is normal for one of the first design products to be the System Architecture. Thus an ITS architecture is a System Architecture for integrated…

Who is using the FRAME Architecture?
The FRAME Architecture was originally created so that it could be used by any Member State, Region, City or Project within the European Union. At present there is no “legislation” that says it must be used, and so it is currently only used by those who wish to use it (see below). The FRAME Architecture is European only insofar as its contents are targeted towards the way things are done within the EU. Any other part of the world…

What are the FRAME User Needs?
Example User Needs:
The system shall be able to provide alternative routes or mode-switch recommendations when it detects, or is informed, that problems have occurred on a mode.
The system shall ensure that traveller information service providers are aware of the traffic management strategy, so that they can provide information that conforms to it.

Why has UML not been used?
UML, or the Universal Modelling Language, describes notations that should be used for many different types of model, including Data Flow Models which are used by FRAME. Thus UML has been used!

How can you use the Organisational Viewpoint?
The Organisational Viewpoint is usually a derivative of the Physical Viewpoint. It is used to show the organisations that will own, and/or operate, and/or maintain the Sub-systems and Modules in the Physical Viewpoint. This is very useful for highlighting the relationships between different organisations and any conflicts that may arise. It can also be used to identify any data that will have to be transferred from a sub-system owned by one organisation to…

How can you plan the Behaviour of an integrated ITS?
There are occasions when it is necessary to impose a particular form of behaviour, or a particular organisation structure, on integrated ITS. Examples include the need to localise safety functions so that they will continue to work when “higher” (non-safety) functions are absent; provide a command and control structure that conforms to certain legal, or constitutional, requirements…

How can you deal with Liabilty Issues?
Integrated ITS may be provided by components owned by more than one organisation, and some hazards may be the result of interactions between those components. It will therefore be necessary to identify who is responsible for dealing with the consequences, both legal and technical. An ITS Architecture provides a model of the components, and their interconnections, and thus a basis for analysing these issues…

How can you undertake a Risk Analysis?
A risk analysis assesses the hazards that may affect an ITS deployment. Those hazards with the most severe risks should be provided with a mitigation strategy, and each strategy should be assigned to an Owner who is responsible for its implementation…

How can you undertake a Cost/Beneift Analysis?
Cost-benefit analysis is a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of a project. The costs of an ITS project can be divided between the Capital Costs, e.g. for the acquisition and deployment of equipment, and the Revenue Costs, e.g. for staff. The benefits often cannot be quantified in monetary terms, but may include reduced delays, improved…

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